Here's a list of some common foot problems and how to treat them.
Pronation or supination (using the inner or outer edges of the feet to walk) causes ache on hips and/or knees. Both conditions can be corrected with orthotics — plastic inserts that adapt to the underside of your shoes. These will aid in aligning your feet, which also help your knees and hips align, too.
A bunion, is a very common foot problem, affecting millions of people. A bunion is a type of swelling of the bone in the joint at the base of the big toe. As the enlargementprogresses, the big toe moves toward the 2nd toe. Increasing disfigurement can induce related foot problems like hammertoes, irritating calluses, and heel and arch pain. The cause of bunions is typically hereditary, which can be aggravated by wearing tight shoes and walking. Bunion surgery can be treated through an outpatient procedure called tricorrectional bunionectomy, wherein the affected bone is realigned and a surgical screw is set to keep it in place. Most patients can walk the same day and carry on with their fitness activities in more or less three weeks.
Hammertoes occur when muscle instability or an abnormal bone length cause tendons to shrink and the toe to buckle over. They are also caused by bunions and are hereditary in some cases. One common side effect of hammertoes are corns -- a buildup of dead skin cells that can be seen on areas where footwear press and rub against the feet.
There are two surgical treatments of Hammertoes:Tenotomy Capsulotomy, wherein the top and bottom tendons and joint capsules are cut to loosen up the buckling; and arthroplasty, whereing the joint is removed, resulting later to a straightened the toe.
Ingrown toenails are nails that have grown into the skin either at one or both sides of the toe. A procedure called matricectomy may be done on grave cases. It involves removing the whole nail and growth plate either surgically or chemically. When only a single corner of the nail is ingrown, the foot doctor may do a partial matricectomy. Afterwards, the body develops a "false nail" — a tough skin that appears like a real nail in a couple of months and may even be polished practically like a real nail. With the toe firmly bandaged, patients may continue usual activity within a week.